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The effect of climate change has
been a major crises all over the world countries like  tsunami, Haiti, china, Rwanda, Kenya,
Burundi, Tanzania and the host of others 
have been worst hit by climate change activities. Urban areas always
present some risk of flooding when rainfall occurs. Building, roads,
infrastructure and other paved areas prevent rainfall from infiltrating into
the soil and so produce more runoff.

Prolong rain fall produces very
large volume of surface water in any city which can easily overwhelm drainage
system. In poorly governed cities, residential areas have no drainage system
installed and rely on natural drainage channel and it is common for building to
be constructed that actually obstruct these drainage channel. Report indicates
that in Dhaka, buildings often encroach in drains’ and many natural drains have
been filled up to road level. It reveals that Mombasa faces comparable
challenges.

 In most urban centers in Africa, Asia and
Latin America, a significant proportion of the population is not served by
solid waste collection services. In cities with inadequate solid waste management
ruin maintenance, garbage and plant growth can quickly clog drains leading to
localized flooding with even light rainfall. There is also a growing
documentation on the inadequacies in drainage and flood protection for urban
centers in Africa and Asia and of the trend towards increased number of death
and injuries from flooding in urban areas. Many studies have highlighted the
vulnerability of certain cities to flood and see level rise.

 These cities include Alexandra, Cotonou,
glehouenou Banjul and port-Harcourt this was indeed the reason recent reports
indicate that lack of provision in six African cities is of major factor in
managing flood when they happen. Flood are already having a large impact on
cities and smaller urban centre in many African nations for instance the flood
in Maputo which was reported to have killed around 900 people and about 45,00
affected at various degrees was as a result of heavy rainfall that brought
floods and mudslides forcing tens of thousand to leave their homes. This
potential in climate change has in it, higher see levels and storm surges and
rain fall that is more prolonged than in the past, and from changes that
increase river floors, for instance through increased glacial melt.

 Report indicate that in Africa, by 202020,
between 75 million people are projected to be exposed to an increase of water
stress due to climate change. It indicated that fresh water availability in
central, south East Asia particularly in large river basin is projected to
decrease due to these phenomenal circumstances which along with population
growth and increase in demand  arising
from higher  standard of living. Another
case in point is that many cities will face more challenges with certain air
pollutant as concentrations of air pollutant change in response to climate
change. Already, report has it that European heat wave of 2003 claimed 20,000
lives as a result of heat stress event in cities which indeed affected the
health, labor productivity and leisure activities of the urban population. In
the case of Nigeria where urban environment is characterized by built up areas,
roads which prevent rain fall from infiltrating into the soil and so produce
more run-offs. The challenges become more serious as permanent communities grew
into cities the increase in human population and consumption pattern led to the
increase in wastes generated, thereby creating environmental problems of
collection and disposal.

The implication of this scenario as
regards waste disposal is overflowing when ever there is rain fall. In the
past, this type of flooding has resulted into the loss of human lives and
destruction of properties worth million of naira. An example of this is the
ogunpa flood disaster in Ibadan.  That
the country has features that are susceptible to climate change Is not in   doubt it can only be measured  through good planning and effective
coordination of disaster response which should include appropriate
emergency  and health care service,
reconstruction to help those ho have lost their livelihood.

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